O-Ring seal is a common seal .

It is for use  in machine design.

O-ring seal can be use in static application such as cover or pin. If the machine parts being seal move relative to one another, the o-ring acts like a dynamic seal.

Easy to craft , reliable , inexpensive.

A packing device .

Commonly moulded in one piece from elastometric material.

Also use to offer structural support ,absorb energy, transmit energy, transmit fluid and seal fluid.

O-ring acts like a seal just by blocking any leaking of gas or liquid between two close mating surface.

O-ring are utilize to keep the air or fluid in/out of distinct space.

It is use in under water camera in order to keep the water out.

SCUBA regulator use O-rings to avoid air from moving out.

Also,use in automobile parts ,cups , drive , belts,body jewellery.

O-RINGS are made from rubbers, metals and plastics.


O-ring also called Toric joint

If the pressure of fluid contain is not greater than the mating stress of o-ring ,then sealing is completed.

To meet the explicit performance requirement of special seals like”ENERGIZED HYDRULIC SEALS” and ”OIL SEEDS” are available.


In vaccum system that must be immerse in liquid nitrogen utilise indium o-ring.

Rubber become brittle and hard at lower temperature.

High vaccum system make use of nickle or copper o-ring.


O-rings come in a variety of sizes. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Standard 568 (AS568)[15] specifies the inside diameters, cross-sections, tolerances, and size identification codes (dash numbers) for O-rings used in sealing applications and for straight thread tube fitting boss gaskets. British Standard (BS) which are imperial sizes or metric sizes. Typical dimensions of an O-ring are internal dimension (id), outer dimension (od) and thickness / cross section (cs)

Metric O-rings are usually define by the internal dimension x the cross section. Typical part number for a metric O-ring – ID x CS [material & shore hardness] 2x1N70 = defines this O-ring as 2mm id with 1mm cross section made from Nitrile rubber which is 70Sh. BS O-rings are define by a standard reference.












Basically, different types of engine are external combustion engines and combustion engines.

(i). External combustion engine:

In an external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine. Example: steam engine.

(ii). Internal combustion engine:

In an internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine. Two-stroke and four-stroke petrol and diesel engine are examples of internal combustion engine.

There are different types of internal combustion (I.C.) engine and their classification depends upon various basis.


The I.C. engines are classified on the following basis:

1. Types of Design

(i). Reciprocating engine:

In a reciprocating engine, there is a piston and cylinder, the piston does reciprocate (to and Fro) motion within the cylinder. Due to the reciprocating motion of the piston, it’s called internal-combustion engine . 2 stroke and four-stroke engines are the common samples of internal-combustion engine.

(ii). Rotary engine:

In the rotary engine, the rotor does rotary motion to produce power. There is no reciprocating motion. A rotor is present within the chamber which does rotation inside a chamber. Wankel rotary engine, turbine engines are the rotary types of engines.

2. Types of Fuel Used

On the basis of types of fuel used, the engine is classified as a petrol engine, diesel engine, and gas engine.

(i). Petrol engine:

The engine which uses petrol for its working is called a petrol engine.

(ii). Diesel engine:

The engine which uses diesel for its working is named diesel.

(iii). Gas engine:

An engine using gas fuel for working is called a gas engine.

3.Cycle of Operation

On the basis of the cycle of operation the engine types are:

(i). Otto cycle engine:

These types of engine work on the Otto cycle.

(ii). Diesel cycle engine:

The engine working on the diesel cycle is called a diesel cycle engine.

(iii). Dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine:

The engine that works on both diesel also as Otto cycle is named a dual cycle engine or semi diesel cycle engine.

4.Number of Strokes

On the basis of the number of strokes, the types of engine are:

(i). Four Stroke Engine:

it’s an engine during which the piston moves fourfold I .e.2 upward (form BDC to TDC) and a couple of downward (from TDC to BDC) movement in one cycle of the power stroke is called four-stroke engines.

(ii). Two Stroke Engine:

The engine during which the piston does twice motion i.e. one from TDC to BDC and other from BDC to TDC to supply an influence stroke is named two-stroke engines.

(iii). Hot spot ignition engine:

this sort of engine isn’t in practical use.

5. Type of Ignition

On the idea of ignition, the engines are classified as:

(i). Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine):

In spark-ignition engine there’s a sparking plug which is fitted at the engine head. The sparking plug produces spark after the compression of the fuel and ignites the air-fuel mixture for the combustion. The petrol engines are spark-ignition engine.

(ii). Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine):

In Compression ignition engine there’s no sparking plug at the plate. The fuel is ignited by the warmth of the compressed gas. The diesel engines are compression ignition engine.

6. Number of Cylinders

On the basis of the number of cylinders present in the engine, the types of engine are:

Different Types of Engine

(i). Single-cylinder engine:

An engine which consists of single-cylinder is named single-cylinder engine. Generally the single-cylinder engines are utilized in motorcycles, scooter, etc.

(ii). Double cylinder engine:

The engine which consists of two cylinders is named double cylinder engine.

(iii). Multi-cylinder engine:

An engine which consists of quite two cylinders is named multi-cylinder engine. The multi-cylinder engine may have three, four, six, eight, twelve and sixteen cylinder.

7. Arrangement of Cylinders

On the basis of the arrangement of cylinders the engines classification is:

(i). Vertical engine:

in vertical engines, the cylinders are arrang in vertical position as shown within the diagram.

(ii). Horizontal engine:

In horizontal engines, the cylinders are place horizontal position as shown within the diagram given below.

(iii). Radial engine:

The rotary engine is reciprocating type combustion engine configuration during which the cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase just like the spokes of a wheel. When it’s view from the front,

it resembles a style star and is name a ‘star’ engine.

Before the gas turbine engine does not become predominant,

it is commonly used for aircraft engines.

(iv). V-engine:

In v sorts of engine,

the cylinders are place in two banks having some angle between them. The angle between the two banks is kept as small as possible to prevent vibration and balancing problem.

(v). W type engine:

In w type engines, the cylinders are arrange in three rows such it forms W type arrangement. W type engine is form when 12 cylinder and 16 cylinder engines are produce.

(vi). Opposed cylinder engine:

In opposed cylinder engine, the cylinders are place opposite to every other. The piston and therefore the rod show identical movement. It runs smoothly and has more balancing. The size of the opposed cylinder engine increase due to its arrangement.

8. Valve Arrangement

According to the valve arrangement of the inlet and valve in various positions within the plate or block, the car engines are classified into four categories. These arrangements are name as ‘L’, ‘I’, ‘F’ and ‘T’. It is easy to recollect the word ‘LIFT’ to recall the four-valve arrangement.

(i). L-head engine:

In these sorts of engine, the inlet and exhaust valves are arrange side by side and operate by one camshaft. The cylinder and combustion chamber forms an inverted L.

(ii). I-head engine:

In I-head engines, the inlet and exhaust valves are located within the plate. one valve actuates all the valves. These sorts of engine are mostly utilize in automobiles.

(iii). F-head engine:

it’s a mixture of I-head and F-head engines. In this, one valve usually inlet valve is within the head and therefore the valve lies within the engine block. Both the sets of valve are operate by the only camshaft.

(iv). T-head engine:

In T-head engines, the inlet valve located at one side and therefore the valve on another side of the cylinder. Here two camshafts are required to work, one for the inlet valve and the other one is for the valve.

9. sorts of cooling

On the idea of sorts of cooling, the engines are classified as:

(i). Air-cooled engines:

In these engines,

the air is use to chill the engines.

In air-cooled engines,

the cylinder barrels are separate and metal fins are use which provide a radiating area that increase cooling.

The air-cooled engines are generally utilize in motorcycles and scooters.

(ii). Water-cooled engines:

In water-cooled engines,

the water is employe for the cooling of the engine.

Water-cooled engines are utilize in cars, buses, trucks and other four-wheeled vehicles, heavy-duty automobiles.

An anti-freezing agent is add , within the water to stop it from freezing during weather.

Every water-cooled engines has radiator for the cooling of predicament from the engine.

 the I.C engine is additionally classified :

1. Speed:

On the idea of speed, the kinds of engines are:

(i). Low-speed engine

(ii). Medium-speed engine

(iii). High-speed engine

2. Method of fuel injection system

On the idea of method of fuel injection system the engines are classified as:

(i). Carburettor engine

(ii). Air injection engine

(iii). Airless or solid injection engine

3. Method of Governing

(i). Hit and miss governed engine:

it is a type of engine in which the entry of the fuel is control by the governor. It controls the speed of the engine by isolating the ignition and fuel supply of the engine at very high speed.

(ii). Qualitatively governed engine

(iii). Quantitatively governed engine

4. Application

(i). Stationary engine:

Stationary engine is an engine in which its framework doesn’t move.

it’s wont to drive immobile equipment like pump, generator, mill or factory machinery etc.

(ii). Automotive engine:

These are the kinds of engines which utilize in the automobile industries.

For e.g:

petrol engine, diesel, internal-combustion engine are combustion engines falls within the category of automotive engine.

(iii). Locomotive engine:

The engine which is used in trains are called locomotive engines.

(iv). Marine engine:

The engine which used in marines for boat or ship propulsion is named marine engine.

(v). Aircraft engine:

The engines which use in aircraft is called aircraft engine.

Radial and turbine engines is use in aircraft propulsion.




TYPE OF BRAKING SYSTEM , Most brakes use friction on the 2 sides of the wheel,

the collective continue the wheel converts the K.E. of the moving object into heat.

For example,

regenerative braking turns much of the energy to electrical energy, which may be stored for later use.

Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert kinetic energy into electrical current in the brake disc, blade, or rail,

further electrical current converted into heat.

The following are the foremost common sorts of braking systems in modern cars.

It’s always good to understand which of them suits your car for straightforward troubleshooting and servicing.

Hydraulic braking system:

This system runs on brake fluid, cylinders, and friction.

By creating pressure within,

glycol ethers or diethylene glycol forces the restraint to prevent the wheels from moving.

• The force generated in the hydraulic braking system is higher than the mechanical braking system.

• The hydraulic braking system considered together of the important braking systems for contemporary vehicles.

• The chance of brake failure is very less in the case of the hydraulic braking system. The direct connection between the actuator and therefore the brake disc or drum makes very little chance of breakdown.

Electromagnetic braking system:

Electromagnetic braking systems are found in many modern and hybrid vehicles.

The electromagnetic braking system uses the principle of electromagnetism to achieve frictionless braking.

This serves to increase the life span and reliability of brakes.


traditional braking systems are susceptible to slip

while this is often back with the fast magnetic brakes.

So without friction or need for lubrication,

this technology is prefer in hybrid.


it is quite modest in size compare to the traditional braking systems.

It is mostly use in the trams and trains.

To make electromagnetic brakes work,

a magnetic flux when passed during a direction perpendicular to the rotating direction of the wheel,

we see a rapid current flowing during a direction opposite to the rotation of the wheel.

This creates an opposing force to the wheel rotation and it slows down the wheel.

Advantages of Electromagnetic braking system:

• Electromagnetic braking is fast and cheap.

• In electromagnetic braking,

there is no maintenance cost like replacing brake shoes periodically.

• By using electromagnetic braking, the capacity of the system( like higher speeds, heavy loads) can be improved.

• A part of the energy is delivered to the supply consequently the running cost is reduced.

• a negligible amount of heat is generated,whereas in mechanical braking enormous heat is produced at brake shoes

which leads to a brake failure.

Servo braking system:

Also known as vacuum or vacuum-assisted braking.

Among this system,

the pressure applied to the pedal by the driver is increase.

They use the vacuum that is produce in petrol engines

by the air intake system in the engine’s intake pipe or via a vacuum pump in diesel engines.

A brake where power assistance is employed to scale back the human effort.

In a car,

engine vacuum is often use to make a large-diaphragm flex and operate the control cylinder.

• Servo braking system boosters used with the hydraulic brake system.

The size of the cylinder and the wheels are practically employ.

Vacuum boosters increase the braking force.


• Pushing the brake pedal releases the vacuum on the side of the booster.

The difference in the air pressure pushes the diaphragm for braking the wheel.

Mechanical braking system:

The mechanical braking system powers the hand brake or emergency brake.

It is the type of braking system,

in which the brake force applied on the brake pedal is carried to the final brake drum

or disc rotor by the various mechanical linkage like cylindrical rods, fulcrums, springs, etc.

In order to stop the vehicle.

Mechanical brakes were utilize in several old automobile vehicles but they’re archaic nowadays thank to their less effectiveness.

Types of Brakes:


The disk brake may be a mechanism for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel from its motion.

disk brake is generally made from forged iron,

but in some cases,

it also made from composites like carbon-carbon or ceramic -matrix composites.

This is link to the wheel and/or the axle.

To stop the wheel,

friction material within the sort of restraint is force against each side of the disc.

Friction caused,

on the disc wheel will slow or stop.


A drum brakes may be a traditional break during,

which the friction is cause by a group of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a drum.

The term drum brake usually means a brake during,

which shoes continue the inner surface of the drum.

Where the drum is pinch between two shoes,

almost like a typical disc brake, sometimes called a pinch drum brake,

although such breaks are relatively rare.





The main function of the electrical system in a vehicle is to generate, store, and supply the electric current

to various systems of a vehicle.

It operates the electrical components/parts in vehicles.

Most components of the earlier-generation vehicles were predominantly mechanical in nature and operation.

Over the amount of your time,

these components started operating electrically/electronically;

shedding their pure mechanical function which the sooner vehicles used.


the bulk of vehicular systems have an electrical function for simple operation and precision control.

Even more advanced steering systems like electrical power Assisted Steering (EPAS) also operate by electrical power.


the engineers felt the necessity for consistency within the generation of electrical power.


they employed different mechanisms to effectively generate, regulate, store, and provide the electrical current within the vehicles.

Negative Earth:

Earlier generation cars mostly used the positive ground in their electrical system.

During this system,

the positive terminal of the battery was attached to the chassis while the negative terminal was live.

However, later this technique was discontinued.


modern cars make use of the negative earth in their electrical system.

Generally, most cars use the 12 Volts electrical system.


some small bikes still use the 6 Volts system

whereas some commercial vehicles use the 24 Volts system.

The vehicle electrical system consists of the subsequent main components:

  • Magneto
  • Generator
  • Alternator
  • Cut Out/Voltage Regulator
  • Battery
Vehicle Electrical System: Magneto

Magneto is an electrical device that generates periodic pulses of AC.

However, it uses permanent magnets

. The magneto doesn’t have a ‘commutator’ which produces the DC (DC) sort of a Dynamo.

Manufacturers classify the magneto as a kind of an alternator.


it’s different from other alternators that use field coils rather than permanent magnets.

The magneto has the following parts:
  • Set of permanent magnets
  • Coil
  • Cranking mechanism (Usually a kick during a motorcycle)


magneto converts the energy of the engine into electricity to run the engine uninterruptedly.

Magneto’s magnetic flux strength is constant.

the most advantage of the magneto is that its output is steady no matter load variations.


if the engine shuts down, then it again needs an external input to restart.


the utilization of such magnetos for ignition is extremely limited.


there are a couple of motorcycles, small bikes, and quads that still use the magneto system.

the most advantage of this technique is reduced weight.

Initially, you would like the input from the battery to start out the engine.


the magneto generates electricity from the input of the energy.

Vehicle Electrical System: Dynamo/Generator

A Dynamo/Generator may be a device that converts energy into electricity.

It supplies the electricity for charging the battery of a vehicle.

The generator gets the drive from the engine, generally thru’ the belt.

In earlier generation vehicles, you’ll see this sort of arrangement.

The speed of the generator largely depends on the speed of the engine.

because the engine speed increases; so does the speed of the generator.

It varies to an excellent extent throughout the engine’s speed like its power-band.


things demands that the generator output should remain nearly constant.

Also, another name for the automotive Generator is Dynamo.

Furthermore, the automotive generator produces DC (DC).

this is often because the electrical components need the DC to function.

Automotive applications most ordinarily use the Generator made from shunt winding.

Initially, manufacturers employed generators to supply DC (DC) which the opposite electrical components/gadgets could directly use/consume.

However, now, the Generator is replaced by the Alternator which generates AC (AC).

it’s then converted into the DC (DC) with the assistance of diodes.

The main components of a generator are:
  • Frame
  • Armature
  • Field coils

Vehicle Electrical System: Alternator

The Alternator is additionally referred to as the AC Generator.

it’s a tool that produces an AC (AC) rather than DC (DC).

Hence, it’s referred to as an Alternator and works on an equivalent principle.

within the early 60s, the alternator replaced the DC Generator due to its distinct advantages over the latter.

However, the automotive electrical system only uses the DC.

So, you would like a mechanism to convert the AC to DC.

An alternator converts the AC (AC) to DC (DC) with the assistance of diodes.

The main components of an alternator are:
  • Frame or housing
  • Rotor (with electromagnets)
  • Stator
  • Slip ring and bushes

Vehicle Electrical System: Cut-Out Relay

The Cut-Out mechanism regulates and cuts out the present output getting to the battery.

When the engine is running at very slow speeds,

the generator output is typically less than the battery output voltage of 12 volts.

Hence, it’s insufficient to charge the battery.

In such a scenario, the battery starts to empty out into the generator because the battery voltage is above the generator output.

to stop the battery from draining off, manufacturers employ a voltage regulator/Cut-Out. It connects/disconnects the generator from the battery.

When the generator output is less than battery voltage,

then it disconnects the generator from the battery,

whereas when the output is higher, it connects the generator back to the battery.

Thus, it prevents the battery from discharging at slow engine speeds.

Vehicle Electric System: Battery

The main purpose of A battery is to store the electricity within the DC form for future use.

A car or motorcycle battery is simply like all other battery that has two poles: positive and negative.

Modern cars use the negative earth technology.

The positive pole represents the South Pole while the negative pole represents the North Pole .

The positive terminal is usually bigger in diameter than the negative terminal. this is often to stop it from being potentially fitted in a wrong way.

Electric Vehicles use more advanced type ‘Lithium-Ion’ or ‘Li-Ion’ batteries.

These batteries can store more current and take less time to charge compared to standard batteries.

Li-ion batteries have high energy density and low self-discharge properties. Hence, they provide long hours of operation before needing the re-charge.

What is a carburetor?


Maximum efficiency




It works on a similar principle on the otto cycle.

It consists of three lobes rotor, casing, spark plug, suction, and exhaust ports.

The rotor of the engine is driven eccentrically in the casing in such a way that there are three separate volume trapped between the rotor and casing.


The volume trapped in each lobe performs the function of suction, compression, ignition, combustion, expansion, and exhaust processes.


we get three power strokes in one revolution of the rotor



In the case of a four-stroke I.C. engine, we get one power stroke in two revolutions of the crankshaft,


the Wankel engine develops six times the power for the same capacity of cylinder compared to reciprocating I.C .engines.


When a tip of the rotor passes the intake port, a fresh mixture starts getting into the primary chamber. The chamber draws fresh air until the second apex reaches the intake port & closes it. At the instant, the fresh air-fuel mixture is sealed into the primary chamber & is being removed for combustion.


The chamber one(between corner 1 to corner 2) containing the fresh charge gets compressed

to the form of the engine by the time it reaches to sparking plug.
While this happens, a replacement mixture starts getting into the second chamber(between corner 2 to corner 3).


When the sparking plug ignites, the highly compressed mixture expands explosively. The pressure of expansion pushes the rotor within the forward direction. This happens until the primary corner passes through the exhaust port.


As the peak OR corner 1 passes the exhaust port, the recent high-pressure combustion gases are liberal to effuse of the port.
As the rotor continues to maneuver, the quantity of the chamber goes on decreasing forcing the remaining gases out of port. By the time the corner 2 closes the exhaust port, corner 1 passes by the intake port repeating the cycle.
While the primary chamber is discharging gases, the second chamber(between corner 2 to corner 3) is under compression. Simultaneously, chamber 3(between corner 3 to corner 1) is drawing a fresh mixture.
This is the sweetness of the engine – the four sequences of the four-stroke cycle, which occur consecutively during a piston engine, occur simultaneously within the Wankel engine, producing power during a continuous stream.

What is carburetor?

Maximum efficiency






The US Department of Energy has announced $72m in funding for funding carbon capture technologies and $29m for fusion research projects.

On Wednesday, the department announced money for projects investigating two different areas of carbon capture.

within the first funding opportunity, nine new thermal power projects and industrial carbon sources will receive $51m for advancing carbon capture and storage (CCS).

This will involve testing engineering-scale technologies on flue gases from coal-fired and natural gas-fired power plants.

A further $21m is going to be split between 18 projects that specialize in capturing CO₂ directly from the air,

referred to as direct air capture.


These projects will specialize in developing and field-testing new materials used in direct air capture.

General Electric Research, Susteon, Innosense, and Electricore have each received many thousands of dollars

To develop different methods and sorbent materials for capturing CO2 from the air.

sorbent material

US Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette said:

“The projects selected as a neighborhood of this research will help us develop the technological solutions needed to scale back greenhouse emission.

This is often critical to balancing our nation’s energy use while continuing to steer the planet in emissions reductions.”

Assistant Secretary for the Office of Fossil Energy Steven Winberg said:

“The primary mission of our office is to make sure that we can still believe its fuel resources for clean and secure energy.

The advancement of carbon capture technologies, including direct air capture, contributes there to the mission.

Our ultimate goal is to mature these technologies

In order to commercialize and delivered to the market.”

Fusion funds specialize in technologies surrounding the most reactor

The department also announced $29m for fusion technology advancements.

Fusion energy generation remains at an experimental stage, with research projects that specialize in consistently producing more energy

Than is required to start out the fusion process.

In a statement, the department said that while this has progressed,

“there remains a big got to specialize in the materials and enabling technologies which will be needed to determine fusion energy’s technical and commercial viability once net energy gain is achieved.”

The support will go toward 14 projects making advancements to technologies outside of this “fusion core”. This comes as a part of the Galvanizing Advances in Market-aligned fusion for an Overabundance of Watts (GAMOW) scheme.

The funded projects will cover three research areas. the primary of those covers the technologies, materials, and superconducting-magnet and fuel-cycle subsystems between the fusion plasma and balance of plant systems.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory received $8.65m for 3 projects, one among which can increase the warmth tolerance of materials in subsystems round the thermonuclear reactor.

Significant funding for US fusion research

The projects also will check out cost-effective, high efficiency, high-duty-cycle electrical driver technologies, also as those with more general applications, like new fusion materials, manufacturing processes, or scaling-up technologies.

The University of Houston has received $1.5m to continue its research into rare-earth metallic tapes. These could allow magnets infusion devices to become more powerful and cheaper to manufacture, lowering their cost by 30 times.

The Advanced scientific research Agency sponsors the GAMOW scheme.

Director Lane Genachowski said:

“Fusion energy may be a potentially game-changing clean energy source,

but for many years it faced scientific and technical challenges.

GAMOW teams will work to further develop enabling fusion materials and subsystem technologies, with attention on the timely future commercialization and deployment of fusion energy generation.”

International governments have collaborated on the ITER project in France, but some companies have started work on smaller reactors. In August, company Chevron invested in Zap Energy, which focuses on scalable fusion technology.



Also check:https://forgottentheory.com/moon-landing-facts/





Scientists had an equivalent reaction you almost certainly did once they reached this conclusion.

It should not be possible — in any case,

there is no oxygen on the moon, one among the 2 essential elements to make rust, the opposite being water.
But the evidence was there.

India’s lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, orbited the moon in 2008, gathering data that has led to numerous discoveries

over the years — including the revelation that there are water molecules on its surface. The probe also carried an instrument built by NASA that would analyze the moon’s mineral composition.
When researchers at NASA and therefore the Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology analyzed the info recently,

they were stunned to find hints of hematite,

a sort of iron oxide referred to as rust.


There are many iron-rich rocks on the moon

when the iron is exposed to oxygen and water to produce rust.

There’s a huge mass embedded within the center of the moon, and astronomers aren’t sure what it’s

“At first, I totally didn’t believe it.

It shouldn’t exist supported the conditions present on the Moon,” said Abigail Fraeman,

a scientist at NASA’s reaction propulsion Laboratory, during a handout.
Not only is there no air on the moon,

but it’s flooded with hydrogen that flows from the sun, carried by solar radiation.

Rust is produced

when oxygen removes electrons from iron; hydrogen does the other by adding electrons, which suggests it’s all the harder for rust to make on the hydrogen-rich moon.

“It’s very puzzling,” said Shuai Li of the University of Hawaii,

on Wednesday within the journal Science Advances. “The Moon may be a terrible environment for hematite to make in.”
After months of research, Li and therefore the NASA scientists think they’ve cracked it — and the answer to the mystery lies in our very own planet.

Here’s their theory

One major clue was the rust was more targeting the side of the moon that faces Earth

suggesting it had been somehow linked to our planet.

Earth is encompassed during a magnetic flux, and solar radiation stretches this bubble

to make an extended magnetic tail within the downwind direction.

The moon enters this tail three days before it’s full, and it takes six days to cross the tail and exit on the opposite side.
During these six days, Earth’s magnetic tail covers the moon’s surface with electrons, and everyone kind of strange thing can happen. Dust particles on the moon’s surface might float off the bottom, and moon dust might fly into a duster, consistent with NASA.
An enhanced map of hematite (dust) on the moon, shown in red employing aspheric projection of the nearside.

And, Li speculated, oxygen from the world travels on this magnetic tail to land on the moon, where it interacts with lunar water molecules to make rust.
The magnetic tail also blocks nearly all solar radiation during the complete moon

the moon is temporarily shielded from the blast of hydrogen, opening a window for rust to make.


“Our hypothesis is that lunar hematite is made through oxidation of lunar surface iron by the oxygen from the Earth’s upper atmosphere

that has been continuously blown to the lunar surface by solar radiation when the Moon is in Earth’s magnetotail during the past several billion years,” said Li during a handout by the University of Hawaii.
“This discovery will reshape our knowledge about the Moon’s polar regions,” he added. “Earth may have played a crucial role in the evolution of the Moon’s surface.”
A growing dent in Earth’s magnetic flux could impact satellites and spacecraft

on other airless bodies like asteroids. “It might be that tiny bits of water

therefore the impact of dust particles are allowing iron in these bodies to rust,” Fraeman said.

But some questions remain unanswered

where the Earth’s oxygen should not be ready to reach.

it is also still unclear how exactly water on the moon is interacting with the rock.
To gather more data for these unsolved mysteries,

NASA is building a replacement version of the instrument

that collected all this existing data about the moon’s mineral composition.

one among these features are going to be ready to map water ice

on the moon’s craters — and “may be ready to reveal new details about hematite also,” said the NASA release.






It was a feat for the ages. Just seven years before, a young president had challenged the state to land a person on the moon—not because it had been “easy,” as John F. Kennedy said in 1962, but because it had been “hard.” By July 20, 1969, Armstrong backed down a ladder and onto the moon’s surface.

Along the thanks to achieving JFK’s vision, there was much diligence, drama, and surprise. Here are some lesser-known moments throughout the epic U.S. effort to succeed in the moon.


1. Moon dirt smells.

A big question facing the NASA team planning the Apollo 11 moon landing was what would the moon’s surface be like—would the lander’s legs land on firm ground, or sink into something soft? The surface clothed to be solid, but the important surprise was that the moon had a smell.

Moon soil is extremely clingy and hard to ignore, so when Armstrong and Aldrin returned to the lunar excursion module and repressurized it, lunar dirt that had clung to the men’s suits entered the cabin and commenced to emit an odor. The astronauts reported that it had a burned smell like wet fireplace ashes, or just like the air after a fireworks show.

Scientists would never get the prospect to research just what the crew was smelling.

The moon soil and rock samples were sent to labs in sealed containers, once the pack was open on earth.smell  has gone

Somehow, as Charles Fishman, author of 1 Giant Leap, says, “The smell of the moon remained on the moon.”


2. JFK was more focused on beating the Soviets than in space.

In public, President John F. Kennedy had boldly pledged that the us would “set sail on this new sea because there’s new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and that they must be won and used for the progress of all people.”

But secret tapes of Kennedy’s discussions would later reveal that privately, JFK was less curious about space exploration than in one-upping the Soviets.

In a 1962 meeting with advisors and NASA administrators, JFK confessed, “I’m not that curious about space.” But he was curious about winning the conflict. Just months after JFK’s inauguration, the Soviet Union had sent the primary man into space. Kennedy asked his vice-chairman, Lyndon B. Johnson, how the U.S. could score a win against the Soviets.

One of the simplest ways to point out U.S. dominance, Johnson reported back, was by sending a manned mission to the moon. Johnson, in fact, had long been an area advocate, saying in 1958, “Control of space is control of the planet .”

3. The Soviets covered up their efforts to urge to the moon first.

It seems that the us wasn’t alone in eagerness to demonstrate its dominance by landing humans on the moon. The Soviet Union was also gunning to accomplish the feat. But once U.S. astronauts got there first, the Soviets tried to stay their efforts on the down-low.

4. Astronauts trained for microgravity by walking “sideways.”

How does one prepare to send someone to an area nobody has ever gone before? For NASA within the 1960s, the solution was to make simulations that mimicked aspects of what astronauts could expect to encounter.

Armstrong and Aldrin rehearsed collecting samples on fake, indoor moonscapes. Armstrong practiced beginning and landing within the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle in Houston. And, to simulate walking within the moon’s lower-gravity atmosphere, astronauts were suspended sideways by straps then walked along a tilted wall.

NASA and therefore the U.S. Geological Survey even blasted out craters at Cinder Lake, Arizona to make a landscape that matched a part of the moon’s surface—because, after all, practice makes perfect

5. Civil Rights activists got a front-row seat to the Apollo 11 launch.

Not everyone was gung-ho about the U.S. effort to land people on the moon. a couple of days before the scheduled launch of Apollo 11, a gaggle of activists, led by civil rights leader Ralph Abernathy, arrived outside the gates of the Kennedy Space Center. They brought with them two mules and a wooden wagon for instance the contrast between the gleaming white Saturn V rocket and families who couldn’t afford food or an honest place to measure.

Amid the heady build-up to the launch, the NASA administrator, Paine, came bent ask the protestors, face-to-face. After Paine and Abernathy talked for a short time under lightly falling rain, Paine said he hoped Abernathy would “hitch his wagons to our rocket, using the program as a spur to the state to tackle problems boldly in other areas, and using NASA’s space successes as a yardstick by which progress in other areas should be measured.”

Paine then arranged to possess members of the group to attend the subsequent day’s launch from a VIP viewing area. Abernathy prayed for the security of the astronauts and said he was as proud as anyone at the accomplishment.

6. Buzz Aldrin took communion on the moon.

When Apollo 11‘s Eagle lunar excursion module landed on the moon on July 20, 1969, astronauts Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin had to attend before venturing outside. Their mission ordered them to require an interruption before the large event.

So Aldrin used a number of the time doing something unexpected, something no man had ever attempted before. Alone and overwhelmed by anticipation, he took part within the first Christian sacrament ever performed on the moon—a rite of Christian communion.

7. Scientists have scared about space germs infecting Earth.

Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collin risk their lives for the advancement of humanity

They had the dubious pleasure of being quarantined for planetary protection.

Since humans had never been to the moon before,

NASA scientists couldn’t make certain that some deadly space-borne plague hadn’t hitched a ride on the astronauts.

The trio was transferred to a mobile quarantine facility on July 24,

when the re-enter to down to pacific

They were transported to NASA Lunar Receiving Laboratory at Johnson Space Center

To access a bigger quarantine facility until their release on August 10, 1969.

8. Nixon was anxious the mission could fail.

While Kennedy had rallied the state to land a person on the moon,

he was assassinated before he could see the Apollo mission achieve his vision.

That nerve-racking honor fell to President Nixon, who had been elected in 1968.

His staff had prepared a press release to be read within the event

the worst happened and arranged a priest to commit their souls to the deep, very similar to a burial stumped.

He didn’t. the lads who had traveled quite 200,000 miles to the moon

then stepped foot on an alien world had survived.

therefore the us would continue to finish six crewed missions

that landed a complete of 12 astronauts on the moon from 1969 to 1972.

ALSO CHECK-https://forgottentheory.com/another-way-of-cooling-in-refrigeration-system-magneto-caloric-effect/



Why we need magnetic refrigeration AND what is the magnetocaloric effect?

  • Magnetic cooling technology could make fridges and air conditioners quieter, safer, and more environmentally friendly. It might also help scientists run experiments at temperatures lower than the extreme chill of outer space without using expensive cryogenic liquids.
  • To avoid damage to the environment. Magnetic Refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by the magneto-caloric effect (MCE).

How does it work?

  • The magnetic refrigeration system works by applying a magnetic field to a magnetic material causing it to heat up.
  • The excess heat can remove by using water.
  • After cooling the material again come to the original temperature.
  • The material will demagnetised.

magnetic refrigeration

  • Magnetic cooling relies on materials called magnetocaloric, which heat up when exposed to a powerful magnetic field.
  • The conventional vapor compression system makes use of a compressor, two heat exchangers – an evaporator and a condenser, a throttling device.
  • The heat will converter into a vapor state in the evaporator
  • The vapor will enter into a compressor and increase the pressure and temperature
  • Then refrigerant will emits its heat into a condenser and will convert into a liquid in the magnetic system.
  • Then the throttling device will reduce the refrigerant pressure to the evaporator pressure.
  • The use of magnets, either permanent or superconducting, change occur in the magnetic field.
  • After that CFC or HFC refrigerant will convert into a working substance i.e. a magneto-caloric material.
  • Then the magneto-caloric effect will increase its temperature and the material will magnetize.

Magneto-caloric effect

  • The Magnetocaloric effect may be a magneto- thermodynamic phenomenon during which a reversible change in temperature of an appropriate material is caused by exposing the material to a changing magnetic flux.
  • this is often also referred to as adiabatic demagnetization magneto caloric effect
  • therein a part of the general refrigeration process, a decrease within the strength of an externally applied magnetic flux allows the magnetic domains of a selected (magnetocaloric) material to become disoriented from the magnetic flux by the agitating action of the thermal energy (phonons) present within the material.
  • If the fabric is isolated so that no energy is allowed to (e)migrate into the material during this point (i.e. an adiabatic process),
  • the temperature drops because the domains absorb the thermal energy to perform their reorientation.
  • The randomization of the domains occurs during a similar fashion to the randomization at the Curie temperature, except that magnetic dipoles overcome a decreasing external magnetic flux while energy remains constant, rather than magnetic domains being disrupted from internal ferromagnetism as energy is added.
  • one of the foremost notable samples of the magnetocaloric effect is within the element gadolinium and a few of its alloys.
  • Gadolinium temperature is observed to extend when it enters certain magnetic fields.manetic material
  • Gadolinium and its alloys are the simplest material available today for magnetic refrigeration near temperature 
  • since they undergo second-order phase transitions that haven’t any magnetic or thermal hysteresis involved.

ALSO CHECK- https://forgottentheory.com/maximum-efficiency/







why we need anti solar panel?

  • One of the problems with solar panels is that they don’t generate electricity at night
  • so we have to store the electricity they generate during the day to power things during the evening.
  • But what if we could develop solar panels that did generate electricity at night?
  • It is possible by anti solar panel.

what is anti solar panel?

anti solar panel

  • Anti solar panel is a panel that works in dark.
  •  To create a solar panel that generates electricity at night
  • Then you just have to create the exact opposite of solar panels work during the day.
  • It can be refer as“anti-solar panel.

How does it works?

  • There are different sorts of solar panels.
  • The one most typically used may be a type that generates electricity from the sun through a physical process called the photo-voltaic (PV) effect  i.e ,when light exposure on certain materials generates an electrical current.


  • Another type is to generates electricity from heat through thermal processes.
  •  The sun is hotter and Earth is cooler, and therefore the difference in temperature are often converted into usable energy.
  • That second quite solar battery is that the one that inspired a team of researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto , California to develop a replacement system which can harness energy darkly .
  •  An inverse version of the solar battery also supports the concept of using heat to urge energy
  • While the solar battery uses the heat difference between the sun and Earth with the planet being the cooler side .

i.e,  system makes use of the heat difference between the coolness of the night atmosphere.

electricity generate at night

  •  thus the planet with the world being the hotter side.
  • The amount of power coming in, from the Sun . Approximately equal amount of power going out from the planet as thermal radiation,
  • so on stay the planet at a roughly constant temperature.
  • the number of power available for harvesting is extremely large.
  •  this device has the potential to bridge the gap left by solar energy , collecting energy from the night sky.


  • The thermoelectric generatorbased device harnesses the variance in temperature between Earth and space.
  • By using a passive cooling mechanism mentioned as radiative sky cooling to require care of the cold side of a thermoelectric generator several degrees below ambient.”
  •  the encircling air heats the great and comfy side of the thermoelectric generator, with the subsequent temperature difference converted into usable electricity.
  • We highlight pathways to improving performance from a demonstrated 25 mW/m2 to 0.5 W/m2.
  • Finally, we demonstrate that even with the low-cost implementation demonstration here, enough power is produced to light a LED: generating light from darkness.


  • if we can devise a system that can generate clean energy 24 hours a day, we could possibly produce more energy than we need and store it for various purposes, such as an emergency.
  • It’s better to have too much energy than to come up short
  • The researchers have only tested their system with a very small prototype.
  • The device was a 20-centimeter (8-inch) aluminum disk painted black and attached to commercial thermoelectricity generators.
  • It successfully created enough energy to power one small LED lightbulb–a small success with immeasurably massive potential.
  • It’s even possible that the device could act in reverse during the daytime, absorbing sunlight and producing electricity from a heat travelling from the sun to the disk and into the surface environment.

    This generator could produce power at nighttime or low-resource areas that lack electricity within the dark when solar panels don’t work.

  • For now, this device doesn’t compared to the energy harvesting abilities of a solar battery.
  • But the technology remains only within the research and development stage.
  • The researchers have already planned to improve .
  • By enhancing the insulation around the top plate that might  raise the energy of device to produce 0.5 watts per square meter or more.