O-Ring seal is a common seal .

It is for use  in machine design.

O-ring seal can be use in static application such as cover or pin. If the machine parts being seal move relative to one another, the o-ring acts like a dynamic seal.

Easy to craft , reliable , inexpensive.

A packing device .

Commonly moulded in one piece from elastometric material.

Also use to offer structural support ,absorb energy, transmit energy, transmit fluid and seal fluid.

O-ring acts like a seal just by blocking any leaking of gas or liquid between two close mating surface.

O-ring are utilize to keep the air or fluid in/out of distinct space.

It is use in under water camera in order to keep the water out.

SCUBA regulator use O-rings to avoid air from moving out.

Also,use in automobile parts ,cups , drive , belts,body jewellery.

O-RINGS are made from rubbers, metals and plastics.


O-ring also called Toric joint

If the pressure of fluid contain is not greater than the mating stress of o-ring ,then sealing is completed.

To meet the explicit performance requirement of special seals like”ENERGIZED HYDRULIC SEALS” and ”OIL SEEDS” are available.


In vaccum system that must be immerse in liquid nitrogen utilise indium o-ring.

Rubber become brittle and hard at lower temperature.

High vaccum system make use of nickle or copper o-ring.


O-rings come in a variety of sizes. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Standard 568 (AS568)[15] specifies the inside diameters, cross-sections, tolerances, and size identification codes (dash numbers) for O-rings used in sealing applications and for straight thread tube fitting boss gaskets. British Standard (BS) which are imperial sizes or metric sizes. Typical dimensions of an O-ring are internal dimension (id), outer dimension (od) and thickness / cross section (cs)

Metric O-rings are usually define by the internal dimension x the cross section. Typical part number for a metric O-ring – ID x CS [material & shore hardness] 2x1N70 = defines this O-ring as 2mm id with 1mm cross section made from Nitrile rubber which is 70Sh. BS O-rings are define by a standard reference.












TYPE OF BRAKING SYSTEM , Most brakes use friction on the 2 sides of the wheel,

the collective continue the wheel converts the K.E. of the moving object into heat.

For example,

regenerative braking turns much of the energy to electrical energy, which may be stored for later use.

Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert kinetic energy into electrical current in the brake disc, blade, or rail,

further electrical current converted into heat.

The following are the foremost common sorts of braking systems in modern cars.

It’s always good to understand which of them suits your car for straightforward troubleshooting and servicing.

Hydraulic braking system:

This system runs on brake fluid, cylinders, and friction.

By creating pressure within,

glycol ethers or diethylene glycol forces the restraint to prevent the wheels from moving.

• The force generated in the hydraulic braking system is higher than the mechanical braking system.

• The hydraulic braking system considered together of the important braking systems for contemporary vehicles.

• The chance of brake failure is very less in the case of the hydraulic braking system. The direct connection between the actuator and therefore the brake disc or drum makes very little chance of breakdown.

Electromagnetic braking system:

Electromagnetic braking systems are found in many modern and hybrid vehicles.

The electromagnetic braking system uses the principle of electromagnetism to achieve frictionless braking.

This serves to increase the life span and reliability of brakes.


traditional braking systems are susceptible to slip

while this is often back with the fast magnetic brakes.

So without friction or need for lubrication,

this technology is prefer in hybrid.


it is quite modest in size compare to the traditional braking systems.

It is mostly use in the trams and trains.

To make electromagnetic brakes work,

a magnetic flux when passed during a direction perpendicular to the rotating direction of the wheel,

we see a rapid current flowing during a direction opposite to the rotation of the wheel.

This creates an opposing force to the wheel rotation and it slows down the wheel.

Advantages of Electromagnetic braking system:

• Electromagnetic braking is fast and cheap.

• In electromagnetic braking,

there is no maintenance cost like replacing brake shoes periodically.

• By using electromagnetic braking, the capacity of the system( like higher speeds, heavy loads) can be improved.

• A part of the energy is delivered to the supply consequently the running cost is reduced.

• a negligible amount of heat is generated,whereas in mechanical braking enormous heat is produced at brake shoes

which leads to a brake failure.

Servo braking system:

Also known as vacuum or vacuum-assisted braking.

Among this system,

the pressure applied to the pedal by the driver is increase.

They use the vacuum that is produce in petrol engines

by the air intake system in the engine’s intake pipe or via a vacuum pump in diesel engines.

A brake where power assistance is employed to scale back the human effort.

In a car,

engine vacuum is often use to make a large-diaphragm flex and operate the control cylinder.

• Servo braking system boosters used with the hydraulic brake system.

The size of the cylinder and the wheels are practically employ.

Vacuum boosters increase the braking force.


• Pushing the brake pedal releases the vacuum on the side of the booster.

The difference in the air pressure pushes the diaphragm for braking the wheel.

Mechanical braking system:

The mechanical braking system powers the hand brake or emergency brake.

It is the type of braking system,

in which the brake force applied on the brake pedal is carried to the final brake drum

or disc rotor by the various mechanical linkage like cylindrical rods, fulcrums, springs, etc.

In order to stop the vehicle.

Mechanical brakes were utilize in several old automobile vehicles but they’re archaic nowadays thank to their less effectiveness.

Types of Brakes:


The disk brake may be a mechanism for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel from its motion.

disk brake is generally made from forged iron,

but in some cases,

it also made from composites like carbon-carbon or ceramic -matrix composites.

This is link to the wheel and/or the axle.

To stop the wheel,

friction material within the sort of restraint is force against each side of the disc.

Friction caused,

on the disc wheel will slow or stop.


A drum brakes may be a traditional break during,

which the friction is cause by a group of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a drum.

The term drum brake usually means a brake during,

which shoes continue the inner surface of the drum.

Where the drum is pinch between two shoes,

almost like a typical disc brake, sometimes called a pinch drum brake,

although such breaks are relatively rare.





The main function of the electrical system in a vehicle is to generate, store, and supply the electric current

to various systems of a vehicle.

It operates the electrical components/parts in vehicles.

Most components of the earlier-generation vehicles were predominantly mechanical in nature and operation.

Over the amount of your time,

these components started operating electrically/electronically;

shedding their pure mechanical function which the sooner vehicles used.


the bulk of vehicular systems have an electrical function for simple operation and precision control.

Even more advanced steering systems like electrical power Assisted Steering (EPAS) also operate by electrical power.


the engineers felt the necessity for consistency within the generation of electrical power.


they employed different mechanisms to effectively generate, regulate, store, and provide the electrical current within the vehicles.

Negative Earth:

Earlier generation cars mostly used the positive ground in their electrical system.

During this system,

the positive terminal of the battery was attached to the chassis while the negative terminal was live.

However, later this technique was discontinued.


modern cars make use of the negative earth in their electrical system.

Generally, most cars use the 12 Volts electrical system.


some small bikes still use the 6 Volts system

whereas some commercial vehicles use the 24 Volts system.

The vehicle electrical system consists of the subsequent main components:

  • Magneto
  • Generator
  • Alternator
  • Cut Out/Voltage Regulator
  • Battery
Vehicle Electrical System: Magneto

Magneto is an electrical device that generates periodic pulses of AC.

However, it uses permanent magnets

. The magneto doesn’t have a ‘commutator’ which produces the DC (DC) sort of a Dynamo.

Manufacturers classify the magneto as a kind of an alternator.


it’s different from other alternators that use field coils rather than permanent magnets.

The magneto has the following parts:
  • Set of permanent magnets
  • Coil
  • Cranking mechanism (Usually a kick during a motorcycle)


magneto converts the energy of the engine into electricity to run the engine uninterruptedly.

Magneto’s magnetic flux strength is constant.

the most advantage of the magneto is that its output is steady no matter load variations.


if the engine shuts down, then it again needs an external input to restart.


the utilization of such magnetos for ignition is extremely limited.


there are a couple of motorcycles, small bikes, and quads that still use the magneto system.

the most advantage of this technique is reduced weight.

Initially, you would like the input from the battery to start out the engine.


the magneto generates electricity from the input of the energy.

Vehicle Electrical System: Dynamo/Generator

A Dynamo/Generator may be a device that converts energy into electricity.

It supplies the electricity for charging the battery of a vehicle.

The generator gets the drive from the engine, generally thru’ the belt.

In earlier generation vehicles, you’ll see this sort of arrangement.

The speed of the generator largely depends on the speed of the engine.

because the engine speed increases; so does the speed of the generator.

It varies to an excellent extent throughout the engine’s speed like its power-band.


things demands that the generator output should remain nearly constant.

Also, another name for the automotive Generator is Dynamo.

Furthermore, the automotive generator produces DC (DC).

this is often because the electrical components need the DC to function.

Automotive applications most ordinarily use the Generator made from shunt winding.

Initially, manufacturers employed generators to supply DC (DC) which the opposite electrical components/gadgets could directly use/consume.

However, now, the Generator is replaced by the Alternator which generates AC (AC).

it’s then converted into the DC (DC) with the assistance of diodes.

The main components of a generator are:
  • Frame
  • Armature
  • Field coils

Vehicle Electrical System: Alternator

The Alternator is additionally referred to as the AC Generator.

it’s a tool that produces an AC (AC) rather than DC (DC).

Hence, it’s referred to as an Alternator and works on an equivalent principle.

within the early 60s, the alternator replaced the DC Generator due to its distinct advantages over the latter.

However, the automotive electrical system only uses the DC.

So, you would like a mechanism to convert the AC to DC.

An alternator converts the AC (AC) to DC (DC) with the assistance of diodes.

The main components of an alternator are:
  • Frame or housing
  • Rotor (with electromagnets)
  • Stator
  • Slip ring and bushes

Vehicle Electrical System: Cut-Out Relay

The Cut-Out mechanism regulates and cuts out the present output getting to the battery.

When the engine is running at very slow speeds,

the generator output is typically less than the battery output voltage of 12 volts.

Hence, it’s insufficient to charge the battery.

In such a scenario, the battery starts to empty out into the generator because the battery voltage is above the generator output.

to stop the battery from draining off, manufacturers employ a voltage regulator/Cut-Out. It connects/disconnects the generator from the battery.

When the generator output is less than battery voltage,

then it disconnects the generator from the battery,

whereas when the output is higher, it connects the generator back to the battery.

Thus, it prevents the battery from discharging at slow engine speeds.

Vehicle Electric System: Battery

The main purpose of A battery is to store the electricity within the DC form for future use.

A car or motorcycle battery is simply like all other battery that has two poles: positive and negative.

Modern cars use the negative earth technology.

The positive pole represents the South Pole while the negative pole represents the North Pole .

The positive terminal is usually bigger in diameter than the negative terminal. this is often to stop it from being potentially fitted in a wrong way.

Electric Vehicles use more advanced type ‘Lithium-Ion’ or ‘Li-Ion’ batteries.

These batteries can store more current and take less time to charge compared to standard batteries.

Li-ion batteries have high energy density and low self-discharge properties. Hence, they provide long hours of operation before needing the re-charge.

What is a carburetor?


Maximum efficiency