Software-defined satellite

Software-defined satellite” – an emerging technology in the space industry

The termsoftware-defined satellite has already appeared in the space industry and related media,

but for the purpose of clarity of this article,

defined as follows:

instead of viewing a satellite as a monolithic piece of hardware and software,

designed to perform a specific mission,

one can see the same satellite as a platform capable of running multiple different missions (defined as software applications)

on the same hardware platform.

This definition follows the same approach as other “software-defined” entities, such as

software-defined radio transceivers that can be reconfigured for a variety of RF tasks

software-defined networking appliances that can support a wide range of telecommunications applications.

In this similar manner,

implementing satellite missions in software can offer a number of advantages,

described in detail further below.

The primary advantage of using “software-defined” solutions is the opportunity to reuse one satellite for multiple applications for multiple users.

While the nature of applications is defined by the instruments available for the users,

the common Earth observation and communications ones,

such as imaging cameras and spectrometers already allow the wide range of different usage scenarios.

Currently, any party that is interested in deploying any kind of satellite in space,

they have to go to the multi-step process of designing the satellite itself,

finding a launch or mission provider,

building or buying the necessary hardware, obtaining the regulatory permits and telecom licenses, and so on.

Multi-year and multi-decade projects are common in the space industry.

But with the “software-defined” approach,

deployment of software code to an existing satellite can be done over a single day

And operations can begin immediately afterward.

Low cost.

The space industry is one of the most capital-intensive areas of the global economy.

The growth of the CubeSat segment and the growing availability of satellite data lowered the barriers of entry for small companies and solo entrepreneurs,

but in-space activities remain outside the reach of an average software developer.

Using the model where multiple satellite missions can share access to resources of the single satellite and applying the “pay-per-use” billing model to the users,

a lot more people would be able to afford direct participation in the upstream space segment.

In a similar manner,

access to space technologies is often behind the industry or government barriers,

often requiring security clearance or being a citizen of select few countries with well-established space agency and aerospace industry.

By comparison, modern software development is a lot more open and accessible to the global community of programmers.

By taking the same approach,

satellite mission development and operations can become a lot more accessible

therefore allow a lot more business concepts to be implemented and tested in the environment of a real space mission.

Platform-independence.

Another important advantage of making satellite mission software-defined is removing dependency on the specific hardware.

This allows the creation of platform-independent,

portable application packages that can be reused on multiple satellite platforms,

provided there is enough compatibility between the models in the family.

Such a development will mirror the history of terrestrial computers,

which evolved from unique pieces that could only run software designed for their own architecture to modern systems that support software that can run in native,

platform-independent, and virtualized environments.

Future opportunities.

The biggest advantage of utilizing a “software-defined” approach to satellite development will be the hardest one to predict.

The benefits of “software-defined satellites” can go far beyond the ability to reconfigure a single satellite for multiple customers and multiple missions.

Opening up an entirely new domain for independent developers may create the same boom of new applications as the creation of the World Wide Web or modern smartphones.

Once all the infrastructure to provide low-cost and low-friction software deployment on a space-based platform will be in place,

the new breakthroughs will surely follow.

Also, check- The Space Force’s relevance to the green agenda.

The Exotic Behavior of Matter in the middle of Jupiter

 

The Space Force’s relevance to the green agenda.

The Space Force’s relevance to the green agenda.

 When most Americans believe Space Force, they probably imagine epic space battles or sprawling fantasy sagas. Policymakers who are more “in the know” likely believe the duties and functions which will preoccupy

the U.S. military’s newest branch within the years ahead.

But few, if any, pause to think about that the USSF has the potential

to play in another arena as well:

that of global climate change.

this is often because, while most don’t realize it,

The Space Force’s relevance to the green agenda is positioned to be among the foremost powerful organizations enabling and advancing a worldwide green agenda.

After all, it’s the USSF that operates the worldwide positioning system (GPS),

one of the world’s most powerful green technologies.

Since its advent within the 1970s, GPS-enabled navigation has facilitated global sea, land, and air transportation

And reduced global fuel expenditures by between 15 and 21 percent.

That figure dwarfs the incremental gains now being sought by advocates of reduced carbon emissions

And makes the USSF the operator of the world’s most powerful green technology.

But the service is additionally doing more during this domain.

The USSF, as an example, is taking

the lead on what is going to become the last word green energy technology:

space-based solar energy.

Ignored for many years by both NASA and therefore the Department of Energy,

space-based solar energy is exclusive as a renewable energy source

because it’s much more efficient than its terrestrial counterpart and requires much less land. Moreover, its vast availability would allow a mature system to satisfy current global demand repeatedly over.

By delivering power on to where it’s needed,

space-based solar energy — once mature — would enable us to supply developing nations with a non-combustion energy source,

substantially reducing the impact of economic development on the environment. It could likewise enable rural electrification, obviating the necessity for carbon-intensive cooking practices like burning wood and trash.

And, since it eliminates

the necessity for miles of forest-disrupting roads and power lines,

it could even be wont to make water,

alleviating scarcity and suffering for millions.

Just as GPS began as military research but broadened to become a worldwide utility,

so too could current research at some point unlock a carbon-free energy source capable of meeting

one hundred pc of worldwide demand. And it’s the Space Force that’s pioneering its development.

Yet, there’s still more.

The USSF is additionally at the middle of climate intelligence,

helping us to understand both about our weather patterns on Earth,

and about the space weather — the activity of the Sun — which impacts our biosphere.

There wouldn’t even be a worldwide green movement had it not been for early military space research

to photograph our weather,

which gave us our first view of our planet within the 1960s.

Some six decades later, U.S. Space Force weather satellites still give us knowledge critical to understanding our climate and to managing our impact thereon.
The Space Force also plays a pivotal role in protecting the space environment itself. It provides traffic alerts to stop satellite collisions (and therefore space debris),

and it helps to develop norms of behavior that regulate the space information services which increasingly monitor our terrestrial environment.

Militaries are, of course, concerned about climate security and human security.

Yet their first focus — and therefore the one driving all of those innovations — is national security.

As is that the case with most tools and technology,

something built for one purpose finishes up being useful for other purposes. Military space technology has and can still advance the safety of Earth’s climate and biosphere. It also can help us to secure a far better, and greener, future.

Peter Garretson may be a senior fellow in Defense Studies with the American policy Council

a technology consultant who focuses on space and defense.

He was previously the director of Air University’s Space Horizons Task Force,

America’s think factory for space, and was deputy director of America’s premier space strategy program, the Schriever Scholars. All views are his own.

 

The Exotic Behavior of Matter in the middle of Jupiter

Transistor-Integrated Microfluidic Cooling

 

Transistor-Integrated Microfluidic Cooling

Transistor-Integrated Microfluidic Cooling for More Powerful Electronic Chips

Managing the warmth generated in electronics may be a huge problem, especially with the constant push

to scale back the dimensions and pack as many transistors as possible within the same chip.

the entire problem is the way to manage such high heat fluxes efficiently.

Usually electronic technologies, designed by electrical engineers, and cooling systems, designed by mechanical engineers, are done independently and separately.

But now EPFL researchers have quietly revolutionized

the method by combining these two design steps into one:

they’ve developed an integrated microfluidic cooling technology alongside the electronics, which will efficiently manage

the massive heat fluxes generated by transistors.

Their research, which has been published in Nature, will cause even more compact electronic devices

and enable the mixing of power converters, with several high-voltage devices, into one chip.

The best of both worlds

In this ERC-funded project, Professor Elison Mattioli, his doctoral student Remco Van Erp, and their team from the varsity of Engineering’s Power and Wide-band-gap Electronics lab (PowerLab)

began working to cause a true change in mentality

when it involves designing electronic devices, by conceiving the electronics and cooling together, right from the start,

getting to extract the warmth very near the regions

that heat up the foremost within the device.“We wanted to mix skills in electrical and engineering

so as to make a replacement quite a device,” says Van Erp.

The team was looking to unravel the difficulty of the way to cool electronic devices, and particularly transistors.

Managing the warmth produced by these devices is one of the most important challenges in electronics going forward,

” says Elison Mattioli.

“It’s becoming increasingly important to attenuate the environmental impact,

so we’d like innovative cooling technologies which will efficiently process

the massive amounts of warmth produced during a sustainable and cost-effective way.”

Microfluidic channels and hot spots  for  Transistor-Integrated Microfluidic Cooling

Their technology is predicated on integrating microfluidic channels inside the semiconductor chip, alongside the electronics, so a cooling liquid flows inside an electronic chip.

“We placed microfluidic channels very on the brink of the transistor’s hot spots, with an easy and integrated fabrication process, in order that we could extract the warmth in just the proper place and stop it from spreading throughout the device,” says Mattioli.

The cooling liquid they used was deionized water, which doesn’t conduct electricity. “We chose this liquid for our experiments, but we’re already testing other, simpler liquids in order that we will extract even more heat out of the transistor,” says Van Erp.

Reducing energy consumption

“This cooling technology will enable us to form electronic devices even more compact and will considerably reduce energy consumption around the world,” says Mattioli. “We’ve eliminated the necessity for giant external heat sinks and shown that it’s possible to make ultra-compact power converters during a single chip. this may prove useful as society becomes increasingly reliant on electronics.” The researchers are now watching the way to manage heat in other devices, like lasers and communications systems.

Black Hole Plasma Conditions Created on Earth

MATTER OF LIGHT BY HADRON COLLIDER

 

 

Black Hole Plasma Conditions Created on Earth

Magnetic reconnection is generated by the irradiation of the LFEX laser into the micro-coil. The particle outflow accelerated by the magnetic reconnection is evaluated using several detectors. As an example of the results, proton outflows with symmetric distributions were observed

Scientists at Osaka University use extremely intense laser pulses to make magnetized-plasma conditions like those surrounding a region, the study which will help explain the still mysterious X-rays that can be emitted from some celestial bodies

Black Hole Plasma Conditions Created on Earth

Laser Engineering at Osaka University have successfully used short,

but extremely powerful laser blasts to generate magnetic field reconnection inside a plasma.

This work may cause a more complete theory of X-ray emission from astronomical objects like black holes.

In addition to extreme gravitational forces,

the matter being devoured and by a black hole can be also be pummeled,

by intense heat and magnetic fields.

Plasmas, the fourth state of matter hotter than solids, liquids, or gasses, are made from electrically charged protons and electrons

that have an excessive amount of energy to make neutral atoms.

Instead, they bounce frantically in response to magnetic fields.

One of the world’s largest petawatt laser facility, LFEX, located in the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University.
One of the world’s largest petawatt laser facility, LFEX, located in the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University. Credit: Osaka University

 

Within a Black Hole Plasma Conditions Created on Earth,

magnetic reconnection may be a process during which twisted magnetic flux lines suddenly “snap”

and cancel one another,

leading to the rapid conversion of magnetic energy into particle kinetic energy.

In stars, including our sun, reconnection is liable for much of the coronal activity, like solar flares.

Owing to the strong acceleration, the charged particles within the black hole’s accretion disk emit their own light,

usually within the X-ray region of the spectrum.

To better understand the method that provides rise to the observed X-rays coming from black holes,

scientists at Osaka University used intense laser pulses to make similarly extreme conditions in the lab.

“We were ready to study the high-energy acceleration of electrons and protons because of the results of relativistic magnetic reconnection,”

Senior author Shinsuke Fujioka says. “For example, it is easy to understand the origin of emission from the famous region Cygnus X-1,”

The magnetic field generated inside the micro-coil (left), and the magnetic field lines corresponding to magnetic reconnection (right) are shown. The geometry of the field lines changed significantly during (upper) and after (lower) reconnection.

This level of sunshine intensity isn’t easily obtained, however.

For a quick instant, the laser required two petawatts of power, like one thousand-fold

the electrical consumption of the whole globe.

With the LFEX laser,

the team was ready to achieve peak magnetic fields with a mind-boggling 2,000 teslas.

For comparison,

the magnetic fields generated by an MRI machine to supply diagnostic images are typically around 3 teslas,

Earth’s magnetic flux may be a paltry 0.00005 teslas.

The particles of the plasma are accelerated to such an extreme degree that relativistic effects needed to be considered.

“Previously, relativistic magnetic reconnection could only be studied via numerical simulation on a supercomputer. Now, it’s an experimental reality during a laboratory with powerful lasers,” first author King Fai Farley Law says.

The researchers believe that this project will help elucidate

the astrophysical processes which will happen at places within the Universe that contain extreme magnetic fields.

Also, check- MATTER OF LIGHT BY HADRON COLLIDER

FUNDING FOR CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES

THE MOON IS GETTING RUSTY FROM EARTH

 

THE MOON IS GETTING RUSTY FROM EARTH

Scientists had an equivalent reaction you almost certainly did once they reached this conclusion.

It should not be possible — in any case,

there is no oxygen on the moon, one among the 2 essential elements to make rust, the opposite being water.
But the evidence was there.

India’s lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, orbited the moon in 2008, gathering data that has led to numerous discoveries

over the years — including the revelation that there are water molecules on its surface. The probe also carried an instrument built by NASA that would analyze the moon’s mineral composition.
When researchers at NASA and therefore the Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology analyzed the info recently,

they were stunned to find hints of hematite,

a sort of iron oxide referred to as rust.

NASA PLAN ON MOON ,2024

There are many iron-rich rocks on the moon

when the iron is exposed to oxygen and water to produce rust.

There’s a huge mass embedded within the center of the moon, and astronomers aren’t sure what it’s

“At first, I totally didn’t believe it.

It shouldn’t exist supported the conditions present on the Moon,” said Abigail Fraeman,

a scientist at NASA’s reaction propulsion Laboratory, during a handout.
Not only is there no air on the moon,

but it’s flooded with hydrogen that flows from the sun, carried by solar radiation.

Rust is produced

when oxygen removes electrons from iron; hydrogen does the other by adding electrons, which suggests it’s all the harder for rust to make on the hydrogen-rich moon.

“It’s very puzzling,” said Shuai Li of the University of Hawaii,

on Wednesday within the journal Science Advances. “The Moon may be a terrible environment for hematite to make in.”
After months of research, Li and therefore the NASA scientists think they’ve cracked it — and the answer to the mystery lies in our very own planet.

Here’s their theory

One major clue was the rust was more targeting the side of the moon that faces Earth

suggesting it had been somehow linked to our planet.

Earth is encompassed during a magnetic flux, and solar radiation stretches this bubble

to make an extended magnetic tail within the downwind direction.

The moon enters this tail three days before it’s full, and it takes six days to cross the tail and exit on the opposite side.
During these six days, Earth’s magnetic tail covers the moon’s surface with electrons, and everyone kind of strange thing can happen. Dust particles on the moon’s surface might float off the bottom, and moon dust might fly into a duster, consistent with NASA.
An enhanced map of hematite (dust) on the moon, shown in red employing aspheric projection of the nearside.

And, Li speculated, oxygen from the world travels on this magnetic tail to land on the moon, where it interacts with lunar water molecules to make rust.
The magnetic tail also blocks nearly all solar radiation during the complete moon

the moon is temporarily shielded from the blast of hydrogen, opening a window for rust to make.

RUSTY MOON

“Our hypothesis is that lunar hematite is made through oxidation of lunar surface iron by the oxygen from the Earth’s upper atmosphere

that has been continuously blown to the lunar surface by solar radiation when the Moon is in Earth’s magnetotail during the past several billion years,” said Li during a handout by the University of Hawaii.
“This discovery will reshape our knowledge about the Moon’s polar regions,” he added. “Earth may have played a crucial role in the evolution of the Moon’s surface.”
A growing dent in Earth’s magnetic flux could impact satellites and spacecraft

on other airless bodies like asteroids. “It might be that tiny bits of water

therefore the impact of dust particles are allowing iron in these bodies to rust,” Fraeman said.

But some questions remain unanswered

where the Earth’s oxygen should not be ready to reach.

it is also still unclear how exactly water on the moon is interacting with the rock.
To gather more data for these unsolved mysteries,

NASA is building a replacement version of the instrument

that collected all this existing data about the moon’s mineral composition.

one among these features are going to be ready to map water ice

on the moon’s craters — and “may be ready to reveal new details about hematite also,” said the NASA release.

ALSO, CHECK-  ANNOUNCEMENT BY US DEPARTMENT FOR FUNDING CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES

MOON LANDING FACTS

MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION

 

MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION

MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION 

Why we need magnetic refrigeration AND what is the magnetocaloric effect?

  • Magnetic cooling technology could make fridges and air conditioners quieter, safer, and more environmentally friendly. It might also help scientists run experiments at temperatures lower than the extreme chill of outer space without using expensive cryogenic liquids.
  • To avoid damage to the environment. Magnetic Refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by the magneto-caloric effect (MCE).

How does it work?

  • The magnetic refrigeration system works by applying a magnetic field to a magnetic material causing it to heat up.
  • The excess heat can remove by using water.
  • After cooling the material again come to the original temperature.
  • The material will demagnetised.

magnetic refrigeration

  • Magnetic cooling relies on materials called magnetocaloric, which heat up when exposed to a powerful magnetic field.
  • The conventional vapor compression system makes use of a compressor, two heat exchangers – an evaporator and a condenser, a throttling device.
  • The heat will converter into a vapor state in the evaporator
  • The vapor will enter into a compressor and increase the pressure and temperature
  • Then refrigerant will emits its heat into a condenser and will convert into a liquid in the magnetic system.
  • Then the throttling device will reduce the refrigerant pressure to the evaporator pressure.
  • The use of magnets, either permanent or superconducting, change occur in the magnetic field.
  • After that CFC or HFC refrigerant will convert into a working substance i.e. a magneto-caloric material.
  • Then the magneto-caloric effect will increase its temperature and the material will magnetize.

Magneto-caloric effect

  • The Magnetocaloric effect may be a magneto- thermodynamic phenomenon during which a reversible change in temperature of an appropriate material is caused by exposing the material to a changing magnetic flux.
  • this is often also referred to as adiabatic demagnetization magneto caloric effect
  • therein a part of the general refrigeration process, a decrease within the strength of an externally applied magnetic flux allows the magnetic domains of a selected (magnetocaloric) material to become disoriented from the magnetic flux by the agitating action of the thermal energy (phonons) present within the material.
  • If the fabric is isolated so that no energy is allowed to (e)migrate into the material during this point (i.e. an adiabatic process),
  • the temperature drops because the domains absorb the thermal energy to perform their reorientation.
  • The randomization of the domains occurs during a similar fashion to the randomization at the Curie temperature, except that magnetic dipoles overcome a decreasing external magnetic flux while energy remains constant, rather than magnetic domains being disrupted from internal ferromagnetism as energy is added.
  • one of the foremost notable samples of the magnetocaloric effect is within the element gadolinium and a few of its alloys.
  • Gadolinium temperature is observed to extend when it enters certain magnetic fields.manetic material
  • Gadolinium and its alloys are the simplest material available today for magnetic refrigeration near temperature 
  • since they undergo second-order phase transitions that haven’t any magnetic or thermal hysteresis involved.

ALSO CHECK- https://forgottentheory.com/maximum-efficiency/

 

 

 

ANTI SOLAR PANEL

ANTI SOLAR PANEL

 

why we need anti solar panel?

  • One of the problems with solar panels is that they don’t generate electricity at night
  • so we have to store the electricity they generate during the day to power things during the evening.
  • But what if we could develop solar panels that did generate electricity at night?
  • It is possible by anti solar panel.

what is anti solar panel?

anti solar panel

  • Anti solar panel is a panel that works in dark.
  •  To create a solar panel that generates electricity at night
  • Then you just have to create the exact opposite of solar panels work during the day.
  • It can be refer as“anti-solar panel.

How does it works?

  • There are different sorts of solar panels.
  • The one most typically used may be a type that generates electricity from the sun through a physical process called the photo-voltaic (PV) effect  i.e ,when light exposure on certain materials generates an electrical current.

PV CELLS

  • Another type is to generates electricity from heat through thermal processes.
  •  The sun is hotter and Earth is cooler, and therefore the difference in temperature are often converted into usable energy.
  • That second quite solar battery is that the one that inspired a team of researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto , California to develop a replacement system which can harness energy darkly .
  •  An inverse version of the solar battery also supports the concept of using heat to urge energy
  • While the solar battery uses the heat difference between the sun and Earth with the planet being the cooler side .

i.e,  system makes use of the heat difference between the coolness of the night atmosphere.

electricity generate at night

  •  thus the planet with the world being the hotter side.
  • The amount of power coming in, from the Sun . Approximately equal amount of power going out from the planet as thermal radiation,
  • so on stay the planet at a roughly constant temperature.
  • the number of power available for harvesting is extremely large.
  •  this device has the potential to bridge the gap left by solar energy , collecting energy from the night sky.

THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR

  • The thermoelectric generatorbased device harnesses the variance in temperature between Earth and space.
  • By using a passive cooling mechanism mentioned as radiative sky cooling to require care of the cold side of a thermoelectric generator several degrees below ambient.”
  •  the encircling air heats the great and comfy side of the thermoelectric generator, with the subsequent temperature difference converted into usable electricity.
  • We highlight pathways to improving performance from a demonstrated 25 mW/m2 to 0.5 W/m2.
  • Finally, we demonstrate that even with the low-cost implementation demonstration here, enough power is produced to light a LED: generating light from darkness.

Conclusion

  • if we can devise a system that can generate clean energy 24 hours a day, we could possibly produce more energy than we need and store it for various purposes, such as an emergency.
  • It’s better to have too much energy than to come up short
  • The researchers have only tested their system with a very small prototype.
  • The device was a 20-centimeter (8-inch) aluminum disk painted black and attached to commercial thermoelectricity generators.
  • It successfully created enough energy to power one small LED lightbulb–a small success with immeasurably massive potential.
  • It’s even possible that the device could act in reverse during the daytime, absorbing sunlight and producing electricity from a heat travelling from the sun to the disk and into the surface environment.

    This generator could produce power at nighttime or low-resource areas that lack electricity within the dark when solar panels don’t work.

  • For now, this device doesn’t compared to the energy harvesting abilities of a solar battery.
  • But the technology remains only within the research and development stage.
  • The researchers have already planned to improve .
  • By enhancing the insulation around the top plate that might  raise the energy of device to produce 0.5 watts per square meter or more.

 

ALSO CHECK: WIND TURBINE

WIND TURBINE

A wind turbine converts the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. We use a generator to convert mechanical energy in electricity.

  • Depending on the technology, the blades of the wind turbine turns revolution per minute.,at a variable velocity of the rotor.
  • whereas, velocity varies due to the velocity of wind in order to reach greater efficiency

Working and construction

wind turbine

  • Blowing air can turn the wings of turbine and electricity will generate from generator.

How does the blowing wind turns the wings?

  • The blade has a lots of airfoil cross section consisting of different size and shape from root to tip.
  • Airfoil technology make the wind turbine blades turn.
  • That means the  lift force is produced when a fluid moves over an airfoil.
  • In this way wind turbine receive a basic rotation .
  • The turning of wind turbine blade experience the wind relatively.(CONCEPT OF RELATIVE VELOCITY)

                             i.e V relative=V wind – V blade

  • Therefore,the wind turbine blade is position in a tilted mannered in order to align with the relative wind speed .
  • As the blade velocity increases to the tip the relative wind speed become more inclined towards the tip .
  • This means that a continous twist is given to the blade from root to tip.
GENERATOR
  • However this rotation cannot be directly coupled to a generator.
  • because the wind turbine blades typically turns at a very low rate at rpm due to issue of noise and mechanical strength.
  • Considering this low speed rotation we cannot produce any meaningful electricity frequency from a generator .the speed is increases in gear box .
GEARBOX
  • The gearbox use a planetary gear set arrangement to achive the high speed ratio.
BRAKE
  • A break also sits in a nacelle the function of brake is to arrested the wind blade rotation during excessively windy condition.
  • cut off speed≈ 80km/hr.
STEP-UP TRANSFORMER
  • Consequently the electricity  is passed through the cable towards the base of step up transformer .
  • The wind turbine should face the wind normally for max. power extraction .
  • but wind direction can change at any time.
VELOCITY SENSOR
  • A velocity sensor on the top of the nacelle measure the wind speed and direction .
  • The deviation in the wind direction is sent to an electronic controller .Further, to correct the error ,the appropriate signal is send to yawing mechanism.
YAWING MECHANISM
  • The yaw motor turn the nacelle
  • thus the turbine will always be align with the blow direction.
  • according to wind speed the relative velocity angle of the wind also changes
  • a blade tilting mechanism tilt the blade and guarantee a proper alignment of the blade with the relative velocity.
  • thus the blade are always at the optimum angle to attack with the relative wind flow.

 

 

Instead of calculating why we not measure the stress?

Instead of calculating why we not measure the stress?

For.e.g

To check the temperature of water we need thermometer.

Ammeter used to measure the electric current,

Anemometer used to measure the wind speed,

Astrolabe used to measure the latitude and altitude of celestial body,

Audiometer used to measure the hearing purpose.

Instead of calculating why we not measure the stress?

Barometer used to measure the pressure,

there are to ways to  know the value of anything  i.e either you calculate or measure.

Like, In ancient time , instead of measuring we use to calculate the blood pressure of patient.

so from above , we can get the idea to measure the stress of  material  by using stress measuring device .

As we know , no practical possible without theory and theory based on observation.

Application:

stress measuring device can help to know about deformation occur on material by applying load at per unit area.

In engineering ,

stress is a internal resistive force to the deformation per unit area.

σ=p/A

where,

σ=stress

P=load

A=Area

There are 3 type of stress ,

  • Tensile stress
  • Compressive stress
  • Shearing stress

 

TYPES OF STRESS

So like that putting a theoretical formula and by designing and programming we can make stress measuring device.

Difference between the pressure and stress,

DIFFERNCE BETWEEN PRESSURE AND STRESS

Normally , we say that” pressure is stress”

But its not like that , for any machine

stress is a internal resistive force to the deformation per unit area.

σ= applied load/cross section

unit – N/m²

But,

Pressure is force per unit area.

P=F/A

unit-N/m²

Due to stress , the pressure will not develop .

But, Due to pressure the stress will develop

so we cannot say that pressure and stress and same .

So Basically the conclusion is pressure has measuring device ,but stress do  not have measuring device.

Although ,

we have stress measuring machine but not a stress measuring device.

S0, by using stress measuring device we can get the stress value of any material at any direction.