Basically, different types of engine are external combustion engines and combustion engines.

(i). External combustion engine:

In an external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine. Example: steam engine.

(ii). Internal combustion engine:

In an internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine. Two-stroke and four-stroke petrol and diesel engine are examples of internal combustion engine.

There are different types of internal combustion (I.C.) engine and their classification depends upon various basis.


The I.C. engines are classified on the following basis:

1. Types of Design

(i). Reciprocating engine:

In a reciprocating engine, there is a piston and cylinder, the piston does reciprocate (to and Fro) motion within the cylinder. Due to the reciprocating motion of the piston, it’s called internal-combustion engine . 2 stroke and four-stroke engines are the common samples of internal-combustion engine.

(ii). Rotary engine:

In the rotary engine, the rotor does rotary motion to produce power. There is no reciprocating motion. A rotor is present within the chamber which does rotation inside a chamber. Wankel rotary engine, turbine engines are the rotary types of engines.

2. Types of Fuel Used

On the basis of types of fuel used, the engine is classified as a petrol engine, diesel engine, and gas engine.

(i). Petrol engine:

The engine which uses petrol for its working is called a petrol engine.

(ii). Diesel engine:

The engine which uses diesel for its working is named diesel.

(iii). Gas engine:

An engine using gas fuel for working is called a gas engine.

3.Cycle of Operation

On the basis of the cycle of operation the engine types are:

(i). Otto cycle engine:

These types of engine work on the Otto cycle.

(ii). Diesel cycle engine:

The engine working on the diesel cycle is called a diesel cycle engine.

(iii). Dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine:

The engine that works on both diesel also as Otto cycle is named a dual cycle engine or semi diesel cycle engine.

4.Number of Strokes

On the basis of the number of strokes, the types of engine are:

(i). Four Stroke Engine:

it’s an engine during which the piston moves fourfold I .e.2 upward (form BDC to TDC) and a couple of downward (from TDC to BDC) movement in one cycle of the power stroke is called four-stroke engines.

(ii). Two Stroke Engine:

The engine during which the piston does twice motion i.e. one from TDC to BDC and other from BDC to TDC to supply an influence stroke is named two-stroke engines.

(iii). Hot spot ignition engine:

this sort of engine isn’t in practical use.

5. Type of Ignition

On the idea of ignition, the engines are classified as:

(i). Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine):

In spark-ignition engine there’s a sparking plug which is fitted at the engine head. The sparking plug produces spark after the compression of the fuel and ignites the air-fuel mixture for the combustion. The petrol engines are spark-ignition engine.

(ii). Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine):

In Compression ignition engine there’s no sparking plug at the plate. The fuel is ignited by the warmth of the compressed gas. The diesel engines are compression ignition engine.

6. Number of Cylinders

On the basis of the number of cylinders present in the engine, the types of engine are:

Different Types of Engine

(i). Single-cylinder engine:

An engine which consists of single-cylinder is named single-cylinder engine. Generally the single-cylinder engines are utilized in motorcycles, scooter, etc.

(ii). Double cylinder engine:

The engine which consists of two cylinders is named double cylinder engine.

(iii). Multi-cylinder engine:

An engine which consists of quite two cylinders is named multi-cylinder engine. The multi-cylinder engine may have three, four, six, eight, twelve and sixteen cylinder.

7. Arrangement of Cylinders

On the basis of the arrangement of cylinders the engines classification is:

(i). Vertical engine:

in vertical engines, the cylinders are arrang in vertical position as shown within the diagram.

(ii). Horizontal engine:

In horizontal engines, the cylinders are place horizontal position as shown within the diagram given below.

(iii). Radial engine:

The rotary engine is reciprocating type combustion engine configuration during which the cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase just like the spokes of a wheel. When it’s view from the front,

it resembles a style star and is name a ‘star’ engine.

Before the gas turbine engine does not become predominant,

it is commonly used for aircraft engines.

(iv). V-engine:

In v sorts of engine,

the cylinders are place in two banks having some angle between them. The angle between the two banks is kept as small as possible to prevent vibration and balancing problem.

(v). W type engine:

In w type engines, the cylinders are arrange in three rows such it forms W type arrangement. W type engine is form when 12 cylinder and 16 cylinder engines are produce.

(vi). Opposed cylinder engine:

In opposed cylinder engine, the cylinders are place opposite to every other. The piston and therefore the rod show identical movement. It runs smoothly and has more balancing. The size of the opposed cylinder engine increase due to its arrangement.

8. Valve Arrangement

According to the valve arrangement of the inlet and valve in various positions within the plate or block, the car engines are classified into four categories. These arrangements are name as ‘L’, ‘I’, ‘F’ and ‘T’. It is easy to recollect the word ‘LIFT’ to recall the four-valve arrangement.

(i). L-head engine:

In these sorts of engine, the inlet and exhaust valves are arrange side by side and operate by one camshaft. The cylinder and combustion chamber forms an inverted L.

(ii). I-head engine:

In I-head engines, the inlet and exhaust valves are located within the plate. one valve actuates all the valves. These sorts of engine are mostly utilize in automobiles.

(iii). F-head engine:

it’s a mixture of I-head and F-head engines. In this, one valve usually inlet valve is within the head and therefore the valve lies within the engine block. Both the sets of valve are operate by the only camshaft.

(iv). T-head engine:

In T-head engines, the inlet valve located at one side and therefore the valve on another side of the cylinder. Here two camshafts are required to work, one for the inlet valve and the other one is for the valve.

9. sorts of cooling

On the idea of sorts of cooling, the engines are classified as:

(i). Air-cooled engines:

In these engines,

the air is use to chill the engines.

In air-cooled engines,

the cylinder barrels are separate and metal fins are use which provide a radiating area that increase cooling.

The air-cooled engines are generally utilize in motorcycles and scooters.

(ii). Water-cooled engines:

In water-cooled engines,

the water is employe for the cooling of the engine.

Water-cooled engines are utilize in cars, buses, trucks and other four-wheeled vehicles, heavy-duty automobiles.

An anti-freezing agent is add , within the water to stop it from freezing during weather.

Every water-cooled engines has radiator for the cooling of predicament from the engine.

 the I.C engine is additionally classified :

1. Speed:

On the idea of speed, the kinds of engines are:

(i). Low-speed engine

(ii). Medium-speed engine

(iii). High-speed engine

2. Method of fuel injection system

On the idea of method of fuel injection system the engines are classified as:

(i). Carburettor engine

(ii). Air injection engine

(iii). Airless or solid injection engine

3. Method of Governing

(i). Hit and miss governed engine:

it is a type of engine in which the entry of the fuel is control by the governor. It controls the speed of the engine by isolating the ignition and fuel supply of the engine at very high speed.

(ii). Qualitatively governed engine

(iii). Quantitatively governed engine

4. Application

(i). Stationary engine:

Stationary engine is an engine in which its framework doesn’t move.

it’s wont to drive immobile equipment like pump, generator, mill or factory machinery etc.

(ii). Automotive engine:

These are the kinds of engines which utilize in the automobile industries.

For e.g:

petrol engine, diesel, internal-combustion engine are combustion engines falls within the category of automotive engine.

(iii). Locomotive engine:

The engine which is used in trains are called locomotive engines.

(iv). Marine engine:

The engine which used in marines for boat or ship propulsion is named marine engine.

(v). Aircraft engine:

The engines which use in aircraft is called aircraft engine.

Radial and turbine engines is use in aircraft propulsion.



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